When creating this website, the editors made a decision to step away from the 20th century biographies written about Victoria Woodhull and Tennessee Claflin, and instead to use only on data found in primary sources, archival material, contemporary accounts, newspaper articles, and contemporary and modern scholarly commentary. This bibliography includes works by Woodhull and Claflin’s milieu, as well as their predecessors and successors, as well as background material on the issues surrounding their platforms and controversies.

Abbot, Austin, ed.

The Official Report of the Trial of Henry Ward Beecher with Notes and References. New York, George W. Smith & Company, 1875.

Acton, William, M.R.C.S.

Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs in Childhood, Youth, Adult Age, and Advanced Life Considered in their Physiological, social and Moral Relations. Second American from the Fourth London Edition. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1867.

Alcott, W.A., M.D.

“Vegetarianism in the United States,” The Vegetarian Advocate, 2 vols. (1848-50), II, p. 95.

Andrews, Stephen Pearl.

The Science of Society. Boston: Sara E. Holmes, 1895.]

——, The Basic Outline of Universology. An Introduction to the Newly Discovered Science of the Universe; Its Elementary Principles; and the First Stags of Their Development in the Special Sciences. New York: Dion Thomas, 1872.

——, Constitution or Organic Basis of the Pantarchy. New York: Baker & Godwin, 1860

——, Cost the Limit of Price: A Scientific Measure of Honesty in Trade as one of the Fundamental Principles in the Solution of the Social Problem. Third Edition. New York: T.L. Nichols, 1854.

——, “How to Kill Mosquitoes, Flies, Wood-Lice, Bed-Bugs, Cockroaches, Centipedes, Prairie Dogs, Wolves, and Other ‘Varmints.’ The Pantarch’s Recipe.” Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly, 22 October 1870.

——. The Science of Society. No. 1. The True Constitution of Government is the Sovereignty of the Individual as the Final Development of Protestantism, Democracy and Socialism. Boston: Sarah E. Holmes, Publisher, 1886.

——, “Stirpiculture; Scientific Propagation; the Founding of a New Race of Human beings. The Men and the Women of the Future—How They Are to be Generated. The Reconstruction of the Physiology of Man,” Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly, 10 September 1870.

——, True Constitution of Government in the Sovereignty of the Individual as the Final Development of Protestantism, Democracy, and Socialism. Third Edition. New York: T.L. Nichols, 1854.

——. Stephen Pearl, Henry James, and Horace Greeley.

Love, Marriage and Divorce and the Sovereignty of the Individual, Boston, Benj. R. Tucker, 1889 (2nd Edition). Ongoing discussion on the title subject that appeared in the New York Tribune, edited at the time by Horace Greeley.


Brief Sketches of the Life of Victoria Woodhull (Mrs. John Biddulph Martin). N.D.

Applegate, Debby.

The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher. New York: Doubleday, 2006.

Auchincloss, Louis.

The Vanderbilt Era: Profiles of the Gilded Age. New York, Collier Books, 1990.

Bacon, Margaret Hope.

Valiant Friend: The Life of Lucretia Mott. New York. Walker & Co., 1980.

Bailie, William.

Josiah Warren The First American Anarchist, A Sociological Study. Boston: Small, Maynard & Company, 1906.

Banner, L. W.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A Radical for Woman’s Rights. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1890.

Barrett, Joseph Osgood.

The Spiritual Pilgrim: A Biography of James M. Peebles. Fourth Edition. Boston: Colby & Rich, 1878.

Barrett, Joseph Osgood and James Martin Peebles.

The Gadarene: or, Spirits in Prison. Boston: Colby and Rich, 1874.

Basch, Norma.

Framing American Divorce From the Revolutionary Generation to the Victorians. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Beeton, B.

Women Vote in the West: The Woman Suffrage Movement 1869-1896. New York: Garland Publishing, 1986.

Beisel, Nicola.

Imperiled Innocents: Anthony Comstock and Family Reproduction in Victorian America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Blackwell, Alice Stone.

Lucy Stone: Pioneer of Woman’s Rights. With a new introduction by Randolph Hollingsworth. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1930.

Blatch, Harriot Stanton and Theodore Stanton, eds.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton As Revealed in Her Letters Diary and Reminiscences, Volumes 1 and 2. New York & London, Harper & Brothers, 1922.

Bonica, Joseph S.

“The Unmanly Fear: Extortion Before the Twentieth Century,” Law, Crime and History 2 (2013).

Boydston, Jeanne, Mary Kelley, and Anne Margolis.

The Limits of Sisterhood: the Beecher Sisters on Women’s Rights and Woman’s and Woman’s Sphere. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Bradlaugh, Mr. Charles and Mrs. Annie Besant.

The Fruits of Philosophy for Both Sexes. On the Passions and Affections—The Art of Love—The Pleasures of Courtship, and Choice of Lovers—The Duties of Husbands and Wives—The Comforts of Matrimony, and the Rearing of a Family, with Chaste Counsel for the Wedding Day. Translated from the Chinese, and Antidote to the American Edition. London: W. Sutton, n.d.

Bradley, Patricia.

Women and the Press: The Struggle for Equality. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2005.

Brammer, Leila R.

Excluded from Suffrage History: Matilda Joslyn Gage, Nineteenth Century American Feminist. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Braude, Ann.

News from the Spirit World: A Checklist of American Spiritualist Periodicals, 1847-1900. American Antiquarian Society, 1990.

——-, Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women’s Rights in Nineteenth-century America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Brisbane, Redelia.

Albert Brisbane A Mental Biography with A Character Study. Boston: Arena Publishing Company, 1893.

Brittan, Samuel Byron.

“Relations of Mind to Offspring,” Brittain’s Journal of Spiritual Science, Literature, Art, and Inspiration, April 1873.

Brodie, Janet Farrell.

Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth Century America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Brown, Mrs. H.F.M. (Hannah Francis Morrill).

Marriage; the Reason and Results, 2nd Edition. Cleveland: Viets & Savage, 1861.

Buescher, John B.

“More Lurid than Lucid: The Spiritualist Invention of the Word Sexism,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, September 2002, Vol. 70, No. 3, pp. 561-592.

——. The Other Side of Salvation: Spiritualism and the Nineteenth-Century Religious Experience. Boston: Skinner House Books, 2004.

Cahn, Naomi R.

“Faithless Wives and Lazy Husbands: Gender Norms in Nineteenth Century Divorce Law,” University of Illinois Law Review, 2002.

Campbell, K.K.

Man Cannot Speak For Her: Vol. 1. A Critical Study of Early Feminist Rhetoric. New York: Greenwood, 1983.

Campbell, Susan.

Tempest-Tossed: The Spirit of Isabella Beecher Hooker. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2014.

Cappell, Vere.

Sexual Outlaw, Erotic Mystic: The Essential Ida Craddock. San Francisco: Weiser Books, 2010.

Carpenter, Cari M.

Selected Writings of Victoria Woodhull: Suffrage, Free Love, and Eugenics. (Legacies of Nineteenth-Century Women Writers) Lincoln and London, University of Nebraska Press. 2010. Reviewer Amanda Frisken:  Carpenter’s collection provides to scholars, students, and a broader audience of general interest readers an affordable collection of Woodhull’s key texts … This collection, complete with a full index and footnotes, has the potential to inaugurate a new era of Woodhull scholarship and commentary.

——. “The Louder Shadow: A Biography of Tennessee Claflin,” Monserrate Rivisited: The Cook Collection in Portugal, 200 Years Since the Birth of Sir Francis Cook, Patron and Art Collector - 1817-2017. Maria João Neto, ed. Lisbon: Caleidoscópio, 2017.

Carpenter, William B.

Mesmerism, Spiritualism &c. Historically and Scientifically Considered: Being Two Lectures Delivered Before the London Institution. New York: Appleton & Co., 1874.

Ceniza, Sherry.

Walt Whitman and 19th-Century Women Reformers. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1998.

Cirillo, Vicent.

“Birth Control in Nineteenth-Century America: A View from Three Contemporaries,” The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 47 (1974) 260-267.

Chase, Warren.

The American Crisis; or, Trial and Triumph of Democracy. Boston: Bela Marsh, 1862.

——. Life Line of the Lone One; or Autobiography of Warren Chase (The World’s Child). Boston: Colby & Rich Publishers, 1886.

——. The Gist of Spiritualism: Viewed Scientifically, Philosophically, Religiously, Politically, and Socially; in a Course of Five Lectures, Delivered in Washington, D.C. Boston, Colby and Rich, 1865.

Chernow, Rob.

Grant. New York, Penguin Press, 2017.

Clark, Uriah.

Plain Guide to Spiritualism: A Hand-Book for Sceptics, Inquirers, Clergyman, Believers, Lecturers, Mediums, Editors. . .Boston: William White & Co., 1863.

Clews, Henry, L.L.D.

Fifty Years in Wall Street, New York, Irving Publishing, 1908. Clews was the man who deposited the check that opened Woodhull, Claflin & Co.

Cohen, Patricia Cline.

“Sex and Sexuality: The Public, the Private, and the Spirit Worlds,” Journal of the Early Republic 24:2 (Summer 2004), pp. 310-381.

Comstock, Anthony.

Frauds Exposed; or How the People are Deceived and Robbed and Youth Corrupted, New York: J. Howard Brown, 1880

Crapsey, Edward.

The Nether Side of New York: Or, the Vice, Crime, and Poverty of the Great Metropolis. New York: Sheldon & Co., 1872.

Cridge, Alfred.

Epitome of Spirit-Intercourse:. . .Its Relation to Christianity, Insanity, Psychometry, and Social Reform. Boston: Bela Marsh, 1854.

Cridge, Annie Denton.

Man’s Rights; or, How Would You Like It? Comprising Dreams. Boston: William Denton, 1874.

Darwin, M.F.

One Moral Standard for All: Extracts from the lives of Victoria Claflin Woodhull now Mrs. John Biddulph Martin and Tennessee Claflin now Lady Cook. New York: Caulon Press, n.d.

Davis, Andrew Jackson.

Harbinger of Health: Containing Medical Prescriptions for the Human Body and Mind. New York: A.J. Davis, 1861.

——. The Magic Staff; an Autobiography of Andrew Jackson Davis. Eighth Edition. Boston, Bela Marsh, 1867.

——. Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations, and A Voice to Mankind. Third Edition. New York: S.S. Lyon and Wm. Fishbough, 1847.

Davis, Mary F[enn].

Danger Signals: An Address on the Uses and Abuses of Modern Spiritualism. New York: A.J. Davis & Co, 1875.

Davis, Paulina Wright.

A History of the National Woman’s Rights Movement, for Twenty Years, With Proceedings of the Decade Meeting Held at Apollo Hall, October 20, 1870, from 1850 to 1870, with an Appendix Containing the History of the Movement During the Winter of 1871, in the National Capitol. New York, Journeymen Printers Co-operative Association, 1871.

D’Emilio, John and Estelle B. Freedman.

Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1997 (originally published 1988).

Ditzion, Sidney.

Marriage Morals and Sex in America a History of Ideas. New York, Bookman Associates, 1953.

Douglass, Frederick.

Narrative of the Live of Frederick Douglass, originally published 1845, Dover Publications 1995.

---—-. My Bondage and My Freedom.  Penguin Classics, New Edition, 2003.

            These two books represent Douglass’ memoirs.

Dubler, Ariela R.

“Governing Through Contract: Common Law Marriage in the Nineteenth Century,” Yale Law Journal, 107:6, 1998.

Dubois, Ellen Carol.

Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America, 1848-1869. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

——. “On Labor and Free Love: Two Unpublished Speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, (University of Chicago Press), Vol. 1, No. 1 (Autumn, 1975), pp. 257-268.

-----. “Outgrowing the Compact of the Fathers: Equal Rights, Woman Suffrage, and the United States Constitution, 1820-1878,” Journal of American History 74 (1987): 836-862.

-----. “Taking the Law into Our Own Hands: Bradwell, Minor and Suffrage Militance in the 1870s,” Visible women: New Essays in American Activism, Nancy Hewitt and Susanne Lebsock, eds. Champaign, IL: Univeristy of Illinois Press, 1993.

Ellis, Dr. John B. [pseud.]

Free Love and its Votaries; or American Socialism Unmasked, Being an Historical and Descriptive Account of the Rise and Progress of the Various Free Love Associations in the United States, and of the Effects of Their Vicious Teachings Upon American Society. New York: United States Publishing Co., 1870.

Farrell, Grace.

Lillie Devereux Blake: Retracing Life Erased. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002.

Ferguson, Christine.

“Eugenics and the afterlife: Lombroso, Doyle, and the spiritualist purification of the race.” Journal of Victorian Culture 12:1 (2007), pp. 64-85.

Finneman, Teri Ann.

Press Portrayals of Women Politicians, 1870s-2000s: from “Lunatic” Woodhull” to “Polarizing Palin,” New York: Lexington Books, 2015.

Folio, Fred [pseud.]

Lucy Boston: or, Women’s Rights and Spiritualism, Illustrating the Follies and Delusions of the Nineteenth Century. Auburn, N.Y.: Alden & Beardsley, 1855.

Foote, Edward Bliss, M.D.

Medical Common Sense Applied to the Causes, Prevention and Cure of Chronic Diseases and Unhappiness in Marriage, 2nd Edition. New York: Author, 1868. Originally published 1864.

Forget, E.

“John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor and French Social Theory,” The Status of Women in Classical Economic Thought. R. Dimand and Ch. Nyland, eds. E. Elgar, 2003.

Fourier, Charles.

The Social Destiny of Man, or Theory of the Four Movements. Henry Clapp, Jr., Translator. With a Treatise on the Functions of the Human Passions and an Outline of Fourier’s System of Social Change by Albert Brisbane. New York: Robert M. Dewitt, 1857.

Fowler, L.N.

Marriage: its History and Ceremonies; with a Phrenological and Physiological Exposition of the Functions and Qualifications for Happy Marriages. New York: Fowlers & Wells, 1848.

Fowler, O.S.

Fowler on Matrimony: or Phrenology and Physiology Applied to the Selection of Suitable Companions for Life; Including the Analysis of the Domestic Faculties; and also Directions to the Married for Living Affectionately and Happily Together. Philadelphia, Published by the Author. 1841.

——. Sexual Science; Including Manhood, Womanhood, and Their Mutual Interrelations; Love Its Laws, Power, Etc. as Taught by Phrenology. Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1870.

Fowler, Sada Bailey.

Irene; or The Road To Freedom. Philadelphia: H.N. Fowler & Co., 1886. One of the first feminist novels, written by a woman well versed in the sex radical movement among women. The characters are thinly veiled dramatizations of leading proponents of the cause.

Fox, Richard Wightman.

“Intimacy on Trial: Cultural Meanings of the Beecher-Tilton Affair,” The Power of Culture: Critical Essays in American History, Richard Wightman Fox and T.J. Jackson Lears, eds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

——. Trials of Intimacy: Love and Loss in the Beecher-Tilton Scandal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Publishers Weekly:  Cogently argued and deftly written, Fox's analysis is likely to stand as the definitive account of this fascinating chapter in 19th-century American social history.

Frederickson, George M.

The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and The Crisis of the Union. New York: Harper and Row, 1965.

Friedman, Lawrence M.

“Name Robbers: Privacy, Blackmail and Assorted Matters in Legal History,: Hofstra Law Review 30 (2002).

Frisken, Amanda.

“Obscenity, Free Speech, and ‘Sporting News’ in 1870s America,” Journal of American Studies, 42 (2008) [Cambridge University Press], 3, 357-577.

——. “Review of Selected Writings of Victoria Woodhull: suffrage, Free Love, and Eugenics,” Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers, 28:1, 2011, pp. 152-154. 

——. “Sex in Politics: Victoria Woodhull as an American Public Woman, 1870-1876.” Journal of Women’s History 12, 1 (2000) [Johns Hopkins University Press]: 89-111.

——. Victoria Woodhull's Sexual Revolution: Political Theater and the Popular Press in Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 2004. 225 pp.

Gage, Matilda Joslyn.

Who Planned The Tennessee Campaign of 1862? or Anna Ella Carroll vs. Ulysses S. Grant: A Few Generally Unknown Facts in regard to Our Civil War. National Citizen Tract No, 1, Washington, D.C., 1880.

——. Woman, Church and State. 1893. Watertown, Mass.: Persephone Press, 1980.

Galloway, Stuart.

The American Equal Rights Association, 1866-1870: Gender, Race, and Universal Suffrage. PhD dis., School of Historical Studies, University of Leicester, 2014.

Ganz, Melissa J.

“Wicked Women and Veiled Ladies: Gendered Narratives of the McFarland Richardson Tragedy,” Yale University Journal of Law & Feminism, Vol. 9, issue 2, 1997.

Gerhard, Frederick.

The Dark Side of New York Life and its Criminal Classes. New York: Frederick Gerhard, 1873.

Gildner, Gray M., Major, USA.

The Chickasaw Bayou Campaign, A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Military Art and Science. Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1991.

Gilfoyle, Timothy J.

City of Eros: New York City, Prostitution, and the Commercialization of Sex, 1790-1920. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1992.

Ginzberg, Lori D.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton: An American Life. New York: Hill and Wang, 2009.

Gordon, Ann.

The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, in Six Volumes, Vol. 1 “In the School of Anti-Slavery 1840-1866,” 1997; Vol. 2, “Against an Aristocracy of Sex, 1866 to 1873,” 2000; Vol. 3 “National Protection for National Citizens, 1873-1880,” 2003; Vol. 4 “When Clowns Make Laws for Queens, 1880-1887,” 2006; Vol. 5 “Their Place Inside the Body Politic, 1887-1895,” 2009; and Vol. 6 “An Awful Hush 1895-1906,” 2013. See especially Vols. 2, 4, 6.

Gordon, John Steele.

The Scarlet Woman of Wall Street: Jay Gould, Jim Fish, Cornelius Vanderbilt, the Erie Railway Wars and the Birth of Wall Street. New York: Grove Press, 1990.

Graham, Sylvester.

A Lecture to Young Men, on Chastity. Intended Also for the Serious Consideration of Parents and Guardians. Boston: Light & Stearns, 1837.

Grant, Ulysses S.

Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant In Two Volumes. New York, Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885.

Guarneri, Carl J.

The Utopian Alternative: Fourierism in Nineteenth Century America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Gutierrez, Cathy.

“From Electricity to Ectoplasm: Hysteria and American Spiritualism,” Aries 3 (2003): 60-63.

——. Plato’s Ghost: Spiritualism in the American Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

——. “Sex in the City of God: Free Love and the American Millennium,” New Religions and Spiritualities, Stephen Hunt, ed. [Ashgate Publishing: 2010] Routledge, 2016.

Halttunen, Karen.

Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830-1870. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982.

Hardinge, Emma.

Modern American Spiritualism. New York, Published by the Author. 1870.

——-. Marriage an Inspirational Discourse. Boston: Hubbard W. Swett, 1859.

——-. The Place and Mission of Woman, an Inspirational Discourse. Boston: Hubbard W. Swett, 1859.

Harmon, Moses, ed.

The Next Revolution: Woman’s Emancipation from Sex Slavery. Vallet Falls, Kansas: Lucifer Publishing Company, 1890.

Harper, Ida Husted.

The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony, Including Public Addresses, Her Own Letters and Many from Her Contemporaries During Fifty Years, Vol. 1 & 2. Indianapolis and Kansas City, Bowen Merrill, 1899.

Harris, Roger Deane.

The Story of the Bloods Including an account of the early generations of the family in America in genealogical lines from: Robert Blood of Concord and Richard Blood of Groton. Privately Published by Roger Deane Harris. 1960, pp. 77ff.

Hartog, Hendrik.

Man and Wife in America: A History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

——. “Marital Exits and Marital Expectations in Nineteenth Century America,” Georgetown University Law Center, 1991.

Hayden, Wendy. 

"Audacia Dangyereyes": Appropriate Speech and the "Immodest" Woman Speaker of the Comstock Era," Rhetoric Society Quarterly 42 (5) (2012), pp. 450-471.

——. Evolutionary Rhetoric: Sex, Science, and Free Love in Nineteenth-Century Feminism. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2013.

——. "(R)Evolutionary Rhetorics: Science and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century Free-Love Discourse," Rhetoric Review 29 (2) (2010), pp. 111-128.

——. "From 'Mothers of the Nation' to 'Mothers of the Race": Nineteenth-Century Feminists and Eugenic Rhetoric," Feminist Rhetorical Resilience, 2012, pp. 182-205.

——-. Unlikely Rhetorical Allies: How Science Warranted U.S. Women’s Rights in Nineteenth-Century Discourses of Sexuality. PhD Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2007.

Haywood, C. Robert.

“Unplighted Troths: Causes for Divorce in a Frontier Town Toward the End of the Nineteenth Century,” Great Plains Quarterly (University of Nebraska), 1993.

Heacock, Brandi Lee.

“Victoria Woodhull: Sex, Spirits, and Socialism,” Explorations: The Undergraduate Research Journal, 2006.

Heywood, Ezra .H.

Cupid’s Yokes: or The Binding Forces of Conjugal Life. Princeton, Mass.: Co-operative Publishing Co., 1877.

——. Free Speech: Report of Ezra H. Heywood's Defense Before the United States Court in Boston, April 10, 11 and 12, 1883; Together with Judge Nelson's Charge to the Jury, Notes of Anthony Comstock's Career of Cruelty and Crime; Tragic and Comic Incidents in the Malicious, Savage Persecution, Suffered by Moral Scientists Devoted to Social Evolution, and Other Interesting Matter. Princeton, Mass., Cooperative Publishing Co., 1883. 

——-. Uncivil Liberty: An Essay to Show the Injustice and Impolicy of Ruling Woman without Her Consent. Princeton, Massachusetts: Cooperative Publishing Company, 1872.

Hibben, Paxton.

Henry Ward Beecher: An American Portrait. New York: The Press of The Readers Club, 1942, with a forward by Sinclair Lewis (originally published 1927).

Homberger, Eric.

Mrs. Astor’s New York: Money and Social Power in a Gilded Age. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2002.

Hooker, Isabella Beecher.

A Mother’s Letters to a Daughter on Woman Suffrage. Hartford: Press of Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1870.

——. Womanhood: Its Sanctities and Fidelities. Boston: Lee and Shepard, Publishers, 1874.

Hooker, Isabella Beecher, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.

Memorial of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Elizabeth L. Blanden, Olympia Brown, Susan B. Anthony, and Josephine L. Griffing to the Congress of the United States, and the Arguments Thereon. Washington, D.C., Chronicle Publishing Company, 1872.

Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz.

Attitudes Toward Sex in Antebellum America: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford/St. Martin’s Press 2006.

——. Rereading Sex: Battles over Sexual Knowledge and Suppression in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Vintage Books, 2003.

——-.“Victoria Woodhull, Anthony Comstock and the Conflict over Sex in the United States in the 1870s,” Journal of American History, Vol. 87, No. 2 (Sept. 2000), pp. 403-434.

——. “A Victoria Woodhull for the 1990s,” Reviews in American History, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Mar. 1999), pp. 87-97.

——. “Victoria Woodhull: Free Love in the Feminine, First-Person Singular,” Forgotten Heroes: Inspiring American Portraits From our Leading Historians. Susan Ware, ed., forward by David McCullough. New York, Free Press, 1998, pp. 111ff.

Howe, Joseph W., M.D.

Excessive Venery, Masturbation and Continence. The Etiology, Pathology and Treatment of the Diseases Resulting from Venereal Excesses, Masturbation and Continence. New York: Bermingham & Company, 1883.

Hull, Moses.

The “Mystery” Solved or, “The New Departure” of Victoria C. Woodhull Examined. Boston: Moses Hull & Company, 1876.

Hull, Moses and W.F. Jamieson.

The Greatest Debate Within a Half Century Upon Modern Spiritualism. Chicago: The Progressive Thinker Publishing House. 1904.

Johnson, Gerald W.

The Lunatic Fringe. New York: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1957.

Jones, Stephens Sanborn.

“Extremeisms,” The Religio-Philosophical Journal, 13 September 1873.

 ——. “Look at It, and spurn It from Your Door,” The Religo-Philosophical Journal, 20 September 1873.

Kerber, Linda K.

“Ourselves and Our Daughters Forever:” Women and the Constitution, 1787-1876 in Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, ed., One Woman One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement. Troudale, OR: Newsage Press, 1995.

Kent, Austin.

Free Love: or, A Philosophical Demonstration of the Non-Exlusive Nature of Connubial Love, also A Review of the Exclusive Feature of the Fowlers, Ain Ballou, H.C. Wright, and Andrew Jackson Davis on Marriage. Hopkinton, N.Y. Publlished by the Author. 1847.

——. “Is Mrs. Woodhull Understood? Banner of Light, 4 May 1872, p. 3, col. 2.

——. Mrs. Woodhull and Her “Social Freedom.” Clinton, Mass.: Independent Radical Tract Society. 1873.

Kerr, Andrea Moore.

“White Woman’s Rights, Black Men’s Wrongs, Free Love, Blackmail, and the Formation of the American Suffrage Association,” in Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, ed., One Woman One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement. Troudale, OR: Newsage Press, 1995.

Knowlton, Charles, M.D.

Fruits of Philosophy: or, The Private Companion of Young Married People. Reprinted from the American Edition. London: J. Watson, 1845.

Landis, Simon M., M.D.

The Prohibited Lecture! On Woodhull and Beecher, Analyzing Free-Love! Philadelphia: “The Indignation League,” 1873

Laqueur, Thomas.

“Orgasm, Generation and the Politics of Reproductive Biology,” The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and Society in the Nineteenth Century. Ed. By Catherine Gallagher and Thomas Laqueur. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Lause, Mark A.

Race & Radicalism in the Union Army. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2009.

——. “Greenbackism,” Encyclopedia of American Social Movements. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2003.

——. Free Labor: The Civil War and the Making of the American Working Class. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2015.

——. The Civil War’s Last Campaign: James B. Weaver, the Greenback-Labor Party and the Politics of Race & Section. Lapam, MD, University Press of America, 2001.

——. Free Spirits: Spiritualism, Republicanism, and Radicalism in the Civil War Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Lazarus, M. Edgeworth.

Love vs. Marriage. Part. 1. New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1852.

——. Passional Hygiene and Natural Medicine; Embracing the Harmonies of Man With His Planet. New York: Fowlers & Wells, 1852.

Leach, William.

True Love and Perfect Union: The Feminist Reform of Sex and Society. New York: Basic Books, 1980.


Lenderman’s Adventures Among the Spiritualists and Free-Lovers; Explaining how the “Rappings,” “Table-Tippings,” Playing on Instruments, etc., are Done, and where the Spirit Communications Come From; Compiling a Great Number of Exciting Incidents of the Ruin of Individuals and Families; of Lunacies; Seductions and Suicides, Caused by these Infernal Systems of Deception. Cincinnati: H.M. Rulison, 1857.

Lucassen, Leo.

“A Brave New World: The Left, Social Engineering and Eugenics in Twentieth-Century Europe,” IRSH 55 (2010) (Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Gechiedenis), pp. 265-296. Trans. from the Dutch by Chris Gordon.

Lochel, Rolf.

“The first Antje Scrupp’s biography on the sensational life of Victoria Woodhull,”

Lutz, Alma.

Susan B. Anthony, Rebel, Crusader, Humanitarian. Washington, D.C., Zenger Publishing Co, 1959.

McCabe, James D., Jr.

Lights and Shadows of New York Life; or, the Sights and Sensations of The Great City. A Work Descriptive of the City of New York in All its Various Phases; With Full and Graphic Accounts of Its Splendors and Wretchedness; Its High and Low Life; Its Marble Palaces and Dark Dens; Its Attractions and Dangers; Its Rings and Frauds; Its Leading Men and Politicians; Its Adventurers; Its Charities, Its Mysteries, and Its Crimes. Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1872.

McDaniel, W. Caleb.

“Spreading the News about Hydropathy: How Did Americans Learn to Stop Worrying and Trust the Water Cure?” Lecture delivered at the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic, 2012.

McLaren Angus.

Sexual Blackmail: A Modern History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2002.

McPherson, Edward.

The Political History of the United States of America during the Period of Reconstruction (from April 15, 1865 to July 15, 1870. Washington, Solomons & Chapman, 1875.

Mill, John Stuart.

Autobiography. London, Longmans, Green Reader, and Dyer, 1873.

——. Essays on Equality, Law and Education, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1984.

——. The Letters of John Stuart Mill, edited with an introduction by Hugh S.R. Elliot., Vol. 1 and 2. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1910

——. The Subjection of Women. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, & Dyer, 1869.

——. The Subjection of Women. With a forward by Carrie Chapman Catt. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1911.

----- Mrs. John Stuart (Harriet Taylor Mill).

Enfranchisement of Women. London, Trubner & Co. 1868.

Mill, John Stuart and Harriet Taylor Mill.

Essays on Sex Equality, Alice S. Rossi, ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Morantz-Sancez, Regina Markell.

Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Morita, Sally.

“Unseen (and Unappreciated) Matters: Understanding the Reformative Nature of 19th-Century Spiritualism,” American Studies, 40:3 (Fall 1999), pp. 99-125.

Morrison, Rev. A. B.

Spiritualism and Necromancy, Cincinnati: Hitchcock and Walden, 1873.

Nartonis, David K.

“The Rise of 19th-Century American Spiriualism, 1854-1873,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, June 2010.

National Archives Microfilm Publications.

Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Missouri, Sixth Infantry; Washington, D.C., 1962. Microcopy No. 405, Roll 428, Sixth Infantry, Individual Records: A-Bl; 429 Bo-Cl; Roll 430, Co-Do; 431 Dr-F; 432, G-Hi; 433 Ho-K; 434 L-Mc; 435 Me-O; 436 P-Sc; 437 Se-Tr; 438 Tu-A.

National Archives and Record Administration, Washington, D.C.

James H. Blood Pension Records, file # 459.314 and # 362.422. John James Bartle Pension Records, file #945.832 and #701.516.

Nichols, John Wesley.

The Man of Destiny. Presidential Campaign, 1872, The Most Remarkable Book of Speeches in the World. George Francis Train. 1872.

Nichols, Mary S. Gove.

Experience in Water-Cure: a Familiar Exposition of the Principles and Results of Water Treatment in the Cure of Acute and Chronic Diseases Illustrated by Numerous Cases in the Practice of the Author; With Explanation of Water-Cure Processes, Advice on Diet and Regimen, and Particular Directions to Women in the Treatment of Female Diseases, Water Treatment in Childbirth, and the Diseases of Infancy. New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1854.

——-, Mary Lyndon or, Revelations of a Life. An Autobiography. New York: Stringer and Townsend, 1855.

Nichols, Thomas L., M.D.

An Introduction to the Water-Cure: Founded in Nature, and Adapted to the Wants of Man. New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1850.

——. Esoteric Anthropology: A Comprehensive and Confidential Treatise on the Structure, Functions, Passional Attractions and Perversions, True and False Physical and Social Conditions, and the Most Intimate Relations of Men and Women. New York: Thomas Low Nichols 1853.

——. Woman, in All Ages and Nations; A Complete and Authentic History of the Manners and Customs, Character and Condition of the Female sex, in Civilized and Savage Countries, From the Earliest Ages to the Present Time, With a Preface by Stephen Pearl Andrews. New York: Fowler and Wells, 1849.

Nichols, Thomas L., M.D., and Mary S. Gove Nichols.

Marriage: Its History Character, and Results; Its Sanctities, and Its Profanities; Its Science and Its Facts. Demonstrating Its Influence as a Civilized Institution on the Happiness of the Individual and the Progress of the Race. New York: T.L. Nichols, 1854. 

Noyes, John Humphrey.

The Berean: A Manual for the Help of Those Wo Seek the Faith of the Primitive Church. Putney, VT, Office of the Spiritual Magazine, 1847.

——. Male Continence, or Self-Control in Sexual Intercourse. A Letter of Inquiry Answered by J.H. Noyes, 1866.

——. Male Continence. Oneida, N.Y.: The Oneida Community. 1872.

O’Connor, L.

Pioneer Women Orators. New York: Columbia University Press, 1954.

O’Neill, William Lawrence.

Feminism in America: A History. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2009.

Owen, Robert Dale.

The Debatable Land Between This World and the Next. New York: G.W. Carleton & Co., 1872.

——-. Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co, 1860.

——. Moral Physiology; or, A Brief and Plain Treatise on the Population Question. Tenth Edition, Boston, J.F. Mendum, 1875 (first published 1831).

Parker, Alison M.

“Sex Radicals and the Quest for Women’s Equality,” The Annals of Iowa, Vol. 62, No. 3 (Summer 2003). Review of Joanne E. Passet’s Sex Radicals and the Quest for Women’s Equality.

Parker, Amanda

“Parker on Frisken, ‘Victoria Woodhull’s Sexual Revolution: Political Theater and the Popular Press in Nineteenth-Century America,’ Humanities and Social Sciences Online, 2005.

Parkhurst, Henry Martyn.

Diana: A Psycho-fyziological Essay on Sexual Relations, for Married Men and Women. New York: Burnz & Company, 1885.

Passet, Joanne E.

Sex Radicals and the Quest for Women’s Equality. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2003.

——. “Yours for Liberty: Women and Freethought in Nineteenth-Century Iowa,” The Annals of Iowa, Vol. 63, No. 2 (Spring 2004), pp. 137-169.

Peebles, J.M., M.D. A.M.

The Demonism of the Ages, Spirit Obsessions so Common in Spiritism, Oriental and Occidental Occultism. Battle Creek, Mich., The Peebles Medical Institute. 1904.

Perez-Selsky, Elisa.

“Policing Privilege and Disciplining bodies: Victoria C. Woodhull, Anthony Comstock, and the Platform for Social Engineering,” Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review, Vol. 5, No. 1 (2013).

Perry, Michael Perry.

Lady Eugenist Humanitarian Government: Feminist Eugenics in the Speeches and Writings of Victoria Woodhull. Seattle: Inkling Books, 2005.

Pietruska, Jamie L.

Propheteering: A Cultural History of Prediction in the Gilded Age. PhD dis., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009.

Poldervaart, Saskia.

The Recurring Movements of ‘Free Love’ Written for the Workshop ‘Free Love and the Labour Movement’ Second workshop in the series ‘Socialism and Sexuality. Amsterdam: International Institute of Social History, 2001.

Popa, Bogdan.

Shame: A Genealogy of Queer Practices in the 19th Century. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017.

Pounds, Diana.

“Booze, ballots, and wild women: coverage of suffrage and temperance by three Iowa newspapers 1870-75,” (1990) Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. 16762.

Proceedings of the Seventh National Woman’s Rights Convention Held in New York City at the Broadway Tabernacle, on Tuesday and Wednesday, Nov 25th and 26th, 1856. (Phonographically Reported by Wm. H. Burr)

New York: Edward O. Jenkins, Printer, 1856.

Register of Officers and Agents, Civil, Military, and Naval, in the Service of the United States (The Official Register of the United States).

Washington, D.C., US Government Printing Office. See the years 1838, 1839, 1941-43, 1845, 1849, 1853.

Renehan, Edward J., Jr.

Commodore: The Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt, Basic Books, New York, 2007.

Rich, Peter Dottling.

Sex Radical: Victoria Woodhull and the Marriage Contract, 1870-1876. (Masters Thesis), Columbia, University of South Carolina, 2004.

Richards, Penny L.

“Beside Her Sat Her Idiot Child, Families and Developmental Disability in Mid-Nineteenth Century America,” Mental Retardation in America: A Historical Reader, Steven Noll and James Trent, Eds. New York, New York University Press, 2004.

Richardson, Todd H.

“From Syphilitic to Suffragist: The Woman’s Journal and the Negotiation of Walt Whitman’s Celebrity.” Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 28 (2010), 36-53.

Robb, George.

Ladies of the Ticker: Women and Wall Street from the Gilded Age to the Great Depression. University of Illinois Press, 2017.

——. “Ladies of the Ticker, Pioneering Women Stockbrokers from the 1880s to the 1920s,” Financial History, The Magazine of the Museum of American Finance, Summer 2017.

Ross, Charles.

The Writing of News: A Handbook. New York: Holt & Co., 1911.

Rossi, Alice S.

“A Feminist Friendship: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony” in Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, ed. One Woman One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement, Troudale, OR: Newsage Press, 1995

——. “Sentiment and Intellect: The Story of John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill,” Essays on Sex Equality, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Rowbotham, Sheila,

Women in Movement: Feminism and Social Action. New York, Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1992. See in particular Chapter 8, Equality and Individualism: Harriet Taylor and John Stuart Mill.

Ryan, Mary P.

Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York 1790-1865. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Safronoff, Cindy P.

Crossing Swords: Mary Baker Eddy vs. Victoria Claflin Woodhull and the Battle for the Soul of Marriage. Seattle: This One Thing, 2015.

Salamo, Lin and Harriet Elinor Smith, eds.

Mark Twain’s Letters, Vol 5 (1872-1873). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sargent, Epes.

The Scientific Basis of Spiritualism. Boston: Colby and Rich, 1881.

Schwartzberg, Beverly.

“‘Lots of Them Did That’: Desertion, Bigamy and Marital Fluidity in Late Nineteenth Century America,’ Journal of Social History 37:3 (Spring 2004), pp. 573-600.

Scudder, John M., M.D.

On the Reproductive Organs and the Venereal. Cincinnati: Jon M. Scudder, 1890.

Sears, Hal D.

“The Sex Radicals in High Victorian America,” The Virginia Quarterly Review, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Summer 1972), pp. 377-392.

——-. The Sex Radicals: Free Love in High Victorian America, The Regents Press of Kansas, 1977.

Sellers, Charles.

The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991, in particular Chapter 8, “Ethos vs. Eros.”

Severance, Juliet H., M.D., and David Jones.

A Discussion of the Social Question. Milwaukee, Wis., National Advance Print, 1891.

Severance, Juliet H., M.D.

A Lecture on Religious, Political and Social Freedom. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Godfrey & Crandall, 1881.

——. A Lecture on the Evolution of Life in Earth and Spirit Conditions. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Godfrey & Crandall, 1882.

——-. A Lecture on the Philosophy of Disease and How to Cure the Sick Without Drugs, with an Explanation of Magnet Laws. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Godfrey & Crandall, 1883.

Shapiro, Charlotte M.

Searching for Matilda: Portrait of a Forgotten Feminist. Create Space, 2012.

Shaplen, Robert.

Free Love and Heavenly Sinners: The Story of the Great Henry Ward Beecher Scandal. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954

Sherman, William T.

Memoirs of General William T. Sherman Written by Himself in Two Volumes. New York D. Appleton & Company, 1875. Second Edition, Revised and Corrected, New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1887. Third Edition with added Chapters by W. Fletcher Johnson, New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1891.

Silver-Isenstadt, Jean.

Shameless: The Visionary Life of Mary Gove Nichols. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Simon, John Y.

The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. 31 Volumes. Carbondale, IL, Southern Illinois University Press, 1967-2009.

Smith, Matthew Hale, LL.D.

Sunshine and Shadow in New York. Hartford: J.R. Burr, 1868.

——. Twenty Years Among the Bulls and Bears of Wall Street. Hartford: J.B. Burr & Company, 1871. Pp. 272ff.

Spurlock, John C.

Free Love: Marriage and Middle-Class Radicalism in America, 1825-1860. New York: New York University Press. 1988.

——. “The Free Love Network in America, 1850 to 1860,” Journal of Social History (Oxford University Press), Vol. 21, No. 4 (Summer, 1988), pp. 765-779.

——, “A Masculine View of Women’s Freedom: Free Love in the Nineteenth Century,” International Social Science Review, Vol. 69, No. 3-4 (1994), pp. 34-44.

Squire, Belle.

The Woman Movement in America, A Short Account of the Struggle for Equal Rights. Chicago, A.C. McClurg & Co., 1911.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady.

Address in favor of Universal Suffrage, for the Election of Delegates to the Constitutional Convention Before the Judiciary Committees of the Legislature of New York, in the Assembly Chamber, January 23, 1867, in Behalf of the American Equal Rights Association. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Company, Printers. 1867.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, and Susan B. Anthony.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton/Susan B. Anthony: Correspondence, Writing, Speeches. Edited by Ellen Carol Dubois. New York: Shocken Books, 1981.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage, Ida Husted Harper, eds.

History of Woman Suffrage in Three Volumes. Vol. 1 (1848-1861), Vol. II (1861-1876), Vol. III (1876-1885). Rochester, N.Y., Charles Mann, 1887.

Stasz, Clarice.

The Vanderbilt Women: Dynasty of Wealth, Glamour and Tragedy. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.

Steinem, Gloria.

“A Question of Class,” Moving Beyond Words (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994)

Stern, Madeleine, ed.

The Pantarch: A Biography of Stephen Pearl Andrews. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968.

——. The Victoria Woodhull Reader. M&S Press, 1974.

Stiles, T.J.

The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt. New York: Vintage Books, 2010.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher.

My Wife and I: or Harry Henderson’s History. New York: J.B. Ford and Company, 1871.

Swedenborg, Emanuel.

Conjugial Love and the Chaste Delights; and, Adulterous Love and its Sinful Pleasures. New York: American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society, 1871.

Taylor, Anthony.

“‘Sectarian Secret Wisdom’ and Nineteenth-Century Radicalism: The IWMA in London and New York,i In: Bensimon, Fabrice, Deluermoz, Quentin, and Jeanne Moisand, (eds.) Arise Ye Wretched of the Earth": the first international in a global perspective. Studies in Global Social History (29). Leiden, Brill, 282-296.

Tomasek, Kathryn and Adam Tuchinsky.

“Spirits Bound to the Same Haven:” American Fourierists, Marriage, and the Political Economy of Love. International Institute of Social History:

Thomas, Tracy A.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Feminist Foundations of Family Law, New York, New York University Press, 2016.

Trall, R.T, M.D.

Home-Treatment for Sexual Abuses. A Practical Treatise. New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1853.

——. The Hydropathic Encyclopedia: a System of Hydropathy and Hygiene. New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1853.

——. Pathology of the Reproductive Organs, Embracing All Forms of Sexual Disorders. Boston: B. Leverett Emerson, 1862.

 ——-. Sexual Physiology: A scientific and Popular Exposition of the Fundamental Problems in Sociology. New York: Wood & Holbrook, 1873.

Van Buren, W.H., A.M, M.D. and E.L. Keyes, A.M., M.D.

A Practical Treatise on the Surgical Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs, including Syphilis. Designed as a Manual for Students and Practitioners. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1876.

Vertinsky, Patricia Anne.

Education for Sexual Morality: Moral Reform and the Regulation of American Sexual Behavior in the Nineteenth Century. PhD dis. University of British Columbia, 1974.

Wadsworth, Frank L., ed.

“The Free Lusters,” Spiritual Republic 30 March 1867.

Waisbrooker, Lois.

The Fountain of Life or The Threefold Power of Sex. Topeka: The Independent Publishing Co., 1898.

——. From Generation to Regeneration. The Sex Question and the Money Power and the Tree of Life Between Two Thieves. New York: Murray Hill Publishing Company, 1891.

——. Nothing Like It: or, Steps to the Kingdom. New York: Murray Hill Publishing, 1893.

——. A Sex Revolution. With an introduction by Pam McAllister. New Society Publishers, 1985.

——. Suffrage for Women The Reasons Why. St. Louis, Missouri, Clayton & Babington, 1868.

Walker, Mary E., M.D.

Hit. New York: The American News Company, 1871.

Wallach, Glenn.

“A Depraved Taste for Publicity:” The Press and Private Life in the Gilded Age, American Studies, 39:1 (Spring 1998), pp. 31-57.

Waller, Altina L.

Reverend Beecher and Mrs. Tilton. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1982.

The War of the Rebellion A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington D.C., Government Printing Office, 1881 et seq. Series I and Series II.

Warbasse, J.P., M.D.

Sexual Continence. A Plea for Sexual Continence in the Unmarried, an Argument in Defense of the single Standard of Sexual Morals; A Reply to Dr. W. J. Robinson’s Statement that “Absolute Continence is Injurious to the Male,” Critic and Guide, 1911.

Warren, Josiah.

Practical Applications of the Elementary Principles of “True Civilization,” to the Minute Details of Every Day Life Being Part III, The Last of the “True Civilization” Series. Princeton, Mass., Josiah Warren, 1873.

——. True Civilization: An Immediate Necessity and the Last Ground for Hope of Mankind. Boston: J. Warren, 1863.

——-. True Civilization: A Subject of Vital and Serious Interest to All People; But Most Immediately to the Men and Women of Labor and Sorrow. Part One. Fourth Edition, Clintondale, Mass., Josiah Warren. Fifth Edition, Princeton, Mass. Benj. R. Tucker, 1875.

Weaver, G. S.

Hopes and Helps for the Young of Both Sexes. New York: Fowlers and Wells, 1853.

Weber, Jill M.

“Gloria Steinem, ‘Testimony Before Senate Hearings on the Equal Rights Amendment’ (6 May 1970)",” Voices of Democracy 3 (2008), pp. 162-181.

Weingartner, Andrea M.

Sex Radicals in America’ Heartland: Redefining Gender and Sexuality, 1880-1910. Phd Diss. University of Missouri-Columbia. 2013.

Werbel, Amy.

Lust on Trial: Censorship and the Rise of American Obscenity in the Age of Anthony Comstock. New York: Columbia University Press, 2018.

White, Barbara A.

The Beecher Sisters. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2003.

Wight, Charles Henry.

Genealogy of the Claflin Family Being a Record of Robert Mackclothlan, of Wenham, Mass and of his Descendants 1661-1898. New York, Press of William Green, 1903.

Wonderley, Anthony.

“Making the Bible Argument: John H. Noyes’ Mission Statement for the Oneida Community,” American Communal Societies Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 3, July 2011, pp. 148-173.

Woodruff, Charles S., M.D.

Legalized Prostitution: or, Marriage As It Is, and Marriage As it Should Be, Philosophically Considered. Boston: Bela Marsh, 1862.

Wright, Henry Clarke.

The Empire of the Mother over the Character and Destiny of the Race. Boston: Bela Marsh. 1866.

——. Marriage and Parentage: or, the Reproductive Element in Man, as a Means to his Elevation and Happiness. 2nd ed. Boston: Bela Marsh, 1855.

——. The Unwelcome Child; or the Crime of an Undesigned and Undesired Maternity. Boston: Bela Marsh, 1860.